Archive for 6.3.3 Rural, Township and City Solar Development Programs and Specific Case Studies

Greener Pastures from the Sun: Solar Photovoltaic-Driven Irrigation in Qinghai Province

Pastures are being degraded in the People’s Republic of China. Solar power can be cheaper than diesel fuel and reduces greenhouse gases while increasing incomes. A two kilowatts-peak solar powered water pumping system can supply both drinking and small scale irrigation water and help reclaim degraded pastures.

6 Renewable Energy, 6.3 Solar Energy, 6.3.3 Rural, Township and City Solar Development Programs and Specific Case Studies

City Supports for Solar Photovoltaic Energy: International Experience of Developing Solar Cities and its Implication for China

This presentation, prepared by Arthur O’Donnell,Alex Pennock and Ryan Wiser of the Center for Resource Solutions, briefly introduces the international practice and experience of developing solar in cities. The presentation firstly describes the role of cities in supporting solar and summarizes US Solar America Cities Program and Model U.S. Cities and Projects; then introduces solar cities in other countries such as Australia, India, Japan and etc; at the end, this presentation draws conclusions and summarizes its implications for China to build its own solar cities.

6.3 Solar Energy, 6.3.3 Rural, Township and City Solar Development Programs and Specific Case Studies

Planning Report On solar PV Scale-up Utilization in Hohhot City

This report was prepared by the Institute of Electrical Engineering under CAS, in cooperation with the Economic and Social Development Research Center of Hohhot and the Inner Mongolian Institute of Electric Power Sciences. The international experts at the Center for Resource Solutions also provided valuable input to the research. The report analyzed the importance and benefits of developing large scale solar PV power generation in cities; evaluated the basic conditions of Hohhot for large scale utilization of solar PV, including, among others, the social economic development status, resource and environment conditions, power grid and power load characteristics, policy environment, and the solar PV technology application status. On basis of these, a general implementation plan coupled with investment estimation was developed; in addition, the report provided analysis on the economic, social and environment benefits, and recommended incentive policies to encourage large scale application of solar PV power generation technology in cities China.

6.3 Solar Energy, 6.3.3 Rural, Township and City Solar Development Programs and Specific Case Studies

Inner Mongolia Yitai Ordos 205 KW Low Concentrating Solar PV Demonstration Power Plant

The project belongs to the CRESP technological progress activities at the provincial level. The 205kW concentrating photovoltaic power station (including the 5kW plate photovoltaic system) was constructed with low concentrating photovoltaic technology. After a year of trial operation, the technology of the first generation revealed a number of shortcomings during the operation in the harsh desert environment, such as the sand prevention capacity is to be improved, the line process is to be improved and so on. To solve those problems, the products with the second generation technology were developed in 2008. The original small unit cells with the peak power of 250W were changed into the 50kW large unit cells, while the tracking device was changed into the rotary design driven by a motor to achieve the accurate tracking in the range of 220 degrees, which not only saves land, but also increases greatly the wind resistance and the circuit integrated design level.

6 Renewable Energy, 6.3.3 Rural, Township and City Solar Development Programs and Specific Case Studies

Innovated Solar PV Water Pumping Technology Demonstration Project

The project is one of the sub-grant projects in the first round of renewable energy competitive grant activities. 10 demonstration sites were established to install 500W, 1000W, 200W three series of photovoltaic water pumping systems in the areas of Inner Mongolia autonomous region without electricity and with drinking problem, which Can solve the drinking problems as well as the irrigation problems for the necessary production and living of 150 families of herdsmen and 45,000 heads of livestock. The demonstrated15kW photovoltaic water pumping system can save 77,000 yuan RMB annually; the annual increased income of livestock can reach 710,000 yuan RMB; the annual production value of forage can reach 144,000 yuan RMB; the total annual income is 931,000 yuan RMB.

6.3 Solar Energy, 6.3.3 Rural, Township and City Solar Development Programs and Specific Case Studies

Demonstration of a 100 KW Scale Rooftop PV System and Comparative Testing of Different PV Modules

The project is one of the sub-grant projects in the first round of photovoltaic competitive grant activities at the national level. The demonstration project uses the solar cell modules with a variety of materials (the validation key is which kind of solar cell module system is the most suitable for the rooftop solar PV power stations in the Jiangsu region) with the efficient and low-cost photovoltaic inverter technology of integration to grid and the radio communication technology of monitoring remote systems. The 112KW demonstration power station of efficient and low-cost photovoltaic integration to grid has been built, and the new technology demonstration has been accomplished of the PV grid-connected control inverter with high power, wireless remote transmission and BIPV, etc. The experience of promoting the rooftop plan has been accumulated. And the standard bases of the installation and safety design, etc. of small rooftop power generation system are provided

6.3 Solar Energy, 6.3.3 Rural, Township and City Solar Development Programs and Specific Case Studies

China: Solar Lamps – The Eyes of Herdsmen at Night

Since the western regions have good conditions of sunshine and rich solar energy resources, using solar photovoltaic (PV) energy to solve the problem of electricity supply for the local residents’ life has become a major technical choice. The solar PV systems in the western regions are mainly used to solve the problem of lighting. Restricted by the level of income, the users of most PV systems can only use DC power systems without inverters, so the use of DC lamps is very popular. At present, there are totally more than 100 DC lamp manufacturers in China. The production capacities of these manufacturers are all low and the quality of their products is also uneven. The reasons of poor product quality are as follows: some large enterprises with actual strength have not set foot in this market, holding the size of this market is too small; some small enterprises use components with inferior quality and low prices to cater for consumers’ preference for inexpensive products for their low purchasing power. These reasons have led to poor product quality, short service life and high cost in service life. The World Bank/Global Environment Facility China Renewable Energy Development Project that is underway at present has selectively inspected the products of some DC lamp manufacturers to keep abreast of the current situation of DC lamp manufacturing in China, provide a scientific basis for scientific support and other activities at the next step, and finally reach the purpose of increasing product quality, reducing production cost and serving the users through the measurement of samples and the analysis and summary of the result of inspection. When conducting market survey for the World Bank-supported China Renewable Energy Development Project in the western regions in 1998, the authors once asked the herdsmen that already had solar PV systems at that time: “If somebody wants to buy your existing solar PV system, how much do you want the buyer pay?” Almost all the interviewed herdsmen answered: “We’d never sell them at any price, because they are we herdsmen’s eyes at night.” As of the end of 2002, electricity supply was still unavailable for about 30 million persons of 7,053,790 households in 21,560 villages. Most of the persons that can get no electricity live in the outlying areas of the northwestern regions that are characterized by a broad territory but a scarce population that accounts for only 28% of China’s total population. Supplying electricity through the extension of powder grids is not reasonable in economy due to many mountains, dangerous landforms and very difficult construction. However, the good conditions of sunshine and the rich solar energy resources in the western regions have made the utilization of solar PV energy a major technical choice for solving the problem of domestic electricity supply for the local residents.

6 Renewable Energy, 6.3 Solar Energy, 6.3.3 Rural, Township and City Solar Development Programs and Specific Case Studies

Alternatives to Fuel-based Lighting in Rural China-LED Lamps in Tibet

Despite high rates of electrification in China, 25 to 30 million people remain without access to electricity. This population, as well as those with only intermittent access, must rely on alternate sources of power for their lighting needs. This paper presents a comparison of available off-grid and grid-based lighting options in terms of performance and economics, which is then contextualized using a case study of semi-nomadic populations in rural Tibet. Fuel-based lighting is shown to be significantly more costly than solar-powered compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and solar-powered light-emitting diode (LED) alternatives per unit of lighting services delivered. We calculate that a hurricane-style kerosene lamp costs approximately $0.40 per thousand lumen hours (klmh) or $2.89 per thousand lux hours (klxh), while a solar-CFL lantern costs $0.17/klmh and $1.20/klxh and a solar-LED device costs $0.15/klmh and $0.03/klxh. Furthermore, as LED efficiencies continue to improve, solar-LED products will become even more economical. Three focus groups and 15 household interviews were held among off-grid populations in rural Tibet to gauge response to LED technologies. LEDs were universally ranked below CFL alternatives, primarily due to the directional nature of the LED devices exhibited, but were still ranked above all non-electric sources of light. Diffusing optics may thus need to be incorporated into solar-LED lighting systems before they are rated as more attractive for general illumination than solar-CFL systems. Accordingly, those surveyed placed a high value on the use of LED bulbs for flashlight applications. Finally, we note that despite the potential benefits of LEDs, market forces are not likely to spur innovation in solar-LED lighting options for the unelectrified populations of Tibet, as the design of these systems is dominated by the governmental bodies subsidizing their distribution. Unless this structure changes, the future development of LED-lighting technologies will depend on top-down investment from the central and local governments.

6.3 Solar Energy, 6.3.3 Rural, Township and City Solar Development Programs and Specific Case Studies

The Best Practices for Off-grid Solar Energy: A Case Study on China

While the beauty of solar energy is well known, there exist a lot of barriers to the greater use of photovoltaic solar home systems in meeting the basic power needs of the substantial population in developing world. Among them reviewed are purchase, delivery and maintenance related barriers in policy and institutional perpectives. A few good practices are examined accordingly. Finally, a case study on the development of solar PV of China are conducted, covering the current situation, the existing problems, the applicability of international practices and recommendations.

6.3 Solar Energy, 6.3.3 Rural, Township and City Solar Development Programs and Specific Case Studies