Archive for 8.3.7 Transport

The Political Economy of Rapid Transport Infrastructure Expansion in China

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.7 Transport

An Update on the Transport Infrastructure Development in China

To boost economic growth, China has massively invested in transport infrastructure in recent years. Fixed assets investment in the four major modes of transportation (road, railway, water and air) amounted to 2,200 billion yuan in 2011. Highway alone accounted for more than half of the total fixed assets investment in the four major modes of transportation, indicating the importance of road transportation in the development of transport infrastructure in China. Among all, investment in railway in 2011 dropped the most, owing to the slowdown in high speed railway (HSR)* construction projects in China. The railway market has been facing funding shortages due to uncertain policy and credit curbs, particularly after the fatal Wenzhou accident in July 2011. Nonetheless, China’s Ministry of Railways (MOR) announced plans.

8.3.7 Transport

Low Carbon Transportation program

This link contains a wide range of reports from iCET’s Low Carbon Transportation program. The program focuses on developing and promoting policies that will make vehicles and transport energy usage cleaner, more efficient, less carbon-intense, and all-round less burdensome on the environment.  We accomplish this through four major projects: The Sustainable Low Carbon Fuel project, the Clean Vehicle project, the Transportation Electrification project, as well as the Environmentally Friendly Vehicle Online Rating System and a broad array of conferences, media and other public outreach. User must be registered to access the publications.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.7 Transport

Policy Recommendations for Supporting the Development of Low Carbon Automotive Fuels in China

“Low Carbon Automotive Fuel” refers to automotive fuel whose emission intensity is lower than that of currently-‐used fossil gasoline and diesel from a whole-‐lifecycle perspective (including feedstock production and transport, fuel manufacturing and transport, fuel combustion/consumption, and all other related emission-‐related processes such as emissions from land use change, emissions avoided from the use of co-‐products of fuel production, etc.). Typically, the intensity is calculated according to the equivalent  CO2 (carbon dioxide) emitted per megajoule energy (gCO2e/MJ). As China’s automotive industry develops, automotive fuel consumption also expanded dramatically, meaning that Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission has increased greatly, as has risk to oil and energy security in general. The development of low carbon automotive fuels is an important method for encouraging the creation of new alternative fuels, improving national  energy security and cutting back on transportation-‐related GHG emissions. This policy recommendation report is the result of research on China’s low carbon fuel development background and importance, low carbon automotive fuel identification methodology, international low carbon automotive fuel policy experience, development of alternative fuels in China with respect to GHG emission avoidance and reduction – including scenario analysis, and lastly offers a roadmap for achieving low carbon fuel system, and a target for China to aim for in reducing the carbon intensity of its fuel system.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3.7 Transport

Electric Bikes in the People’s Republic of China: Impact on the Environment and Prospects for Growth

Electric bikes (e-bikes) provide low-cost, convenient, and relatively energy-efficient transportation to an estimated 40 million-50 million people in the People’s Republic of China (PRC), quickly becoming one of the dominant travel modes in the country. As e-bike use grows, concerns are rising about lead pollution from their batteries and emissions from their use of grid electricity, primarily generated by coal power plants. This report analyzes the environmental performance of e-bikes relative to other competing modes, their market potential, and the viability of alternative battery technologies. It also frames the role of e-bikes in the PRC’s transportation system and recommends policy for decision makers in the PRC’s central and municipal governments.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.7 Transport

Using Economic Instruments to Promote Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in the People’s Republic of China

Growing energy consumption in transport is unsustainable. Current carbon dioxide emission levels need to be better controlled. Economic instruments can promote environmentally sustainable transport.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.7 Transport

Promoting Environmentally Sustainable Transport in the People’s Republic of China

Transport has played a very important role in developing the People’s Republic of China (PRC) national economy and connecting the remote and underdeveloped regions with the more developed regions. However, with increasing oil prices and alarming increase in the greenhouse gas emissions, transport faces competitive challenges of sustainability, affordability, and safety. This paper is an analysis of challenges faced by the transport sector and discusses the key issues of sustainability, resource optimization, and climate change. Affordability, transportation equity, and environmental sustainability are some of the key issues discussed in the paper. As the personal incomes in the PRC grow, it is important that the transport planners take these important issues into consideration. The paper argues that the business-as-usual approach is no longer a viable option, and there is a need for a new, target-oriented approach that places energy efficiency, environment, and health at the top of the policy agenda for transport and related sectors at all levels. The paper makes six key recommendations for promoting environmentally sustainable transportation that can be considered by the PRC for implementation.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.7 Transport

ISSRC: A Study of the Emissions from Diesel Vehicles Operating in Beijing, China

From July 4 to July 15, 2007 a series of 33 diesel vehicles were tested in Beijing, China.  Twenty-four of these vehicles were classified as light-heavy-duty vehicles, most of them were trucks.  The tests were carried out in Beijing at a private service garage.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.7 Transport

Xi’an’s BRT System Development

Xi’an, home to the to the famous Qin Dynasty Terracotta Warriors tourist attraction, has seen an increase in air pollution and traffic congestion due to its dramatic economic growth. This report by Chang An University describes current transportation problems in Xi’an, briefly introduces Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), and provides recommendations for Xi’an to implement BRT.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.7 Transport

Transportation Situation and Traffic Air Pollution Status in Shanghai

This paper reports the findings of the first phase of a two-year Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences (SAES) study seeking to (1) quantify the environmental and public health benefits of various vehicle emissions control policy options and (2) develop a system of sustainable transport and environmental indicators to help Shanghai develop transportation development plans. In this first phase of work, SAES created an emissions profile for vehicles in Shanghai, analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of vehicle emissions throughout the city, and calculated the public health impact of these emissions.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.7 Transport