Archive for 1.2 Rural and Urban Energy

Rural Energy Consumption and its Impacts on Climate Change

With support from the Blue Moon Fund (BMF), Global Environmental Institute (GEI) started this research to gain an understanding of energy consumption in rural China, the impacts of rural energy consumption on climate change, and analyzing factors affecting energy consumption and CO2  emissions. Refers to energy consumption, this report mainly analyzes the current situation, development pattern and future trends of rural residential and production energy consumption, with more focus on residential sector. It finds out that rural residential energy consumption in China shows obvious structure transitions from non-commercial energy to commercial energy ,which indicates that more CO2 emissions will be generated from rural energy sector. The use of residential commercial energy is increasing fast since 2001, with average annual per capita growth rate of 10%, nearly 1.5 times faster than that of urban. As for rural production energy consumption, the total energy consumption and structure of different commercial energies have been keeping stable. As for rural energy on climate change, this report analyzes the CO2 emissions generated from rural residential sector. It finds out that the major contributor to CO2 emissions from rural residential sector is coal and electricity (in direct emissions generated from thermal power generation), followed by LPG. However, there is a significant difference in southern and northern rural areas because of climate difference. In southern rural areas, the biggest contributor is electricity, followed by coal and LPG; while in northern rural areas, the biggest contributor is coal, mainly for space heating in winter, followed by electricity.

1 Energy and Climate, 1.2 Rural and Urban Energy

Household Level Fuel Switching in Rural Hubei

Based on an analysis of a rural household survey data in Hubei province in 2004, we explore patterns of residential fuel use within the conceptual framework of fuel switching using statistical approaches. Cross sectional data show that the transition from biomass to modern commercial sources is still at an early stage, incomes may have to rise substantially in order for absolute biomass use to fall, and residential fuel use varies tremendously across geographic regions due to disparities in availability of different energy sources. Regression analysis using logistic and tobit models suggest that income, fuel prices, demographic characteristics, and topography have significant effects on fuel switching. Moreover, while switching is occurring, the commercial energy source which appears to be the principal substitute for biomass in rural households is coal. Given that burning coal in the household is a major contributor to general air pollution in China and to negative health outcomes due to indoor air pollution, further transition to modern and clean fuels such as biogas, LPG, natural gas and electricity is important. Further income growth induced by New Countryside Construction and improvement of modern and clean energy accessibility will play a critical role in the switching process.

1 Energy and Climate, 1.2 Rural and Urban Energy

Efficient System Design and Sustainable Finance for China’s Village Electrification Program

This paper describes a joint effort of the Institute for Electrical Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IEE), and the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support China’s rural electrification program. This project developed a design tool that provides guidelines both for off-grid renewable energy system designs and for cost-based tariff and finance schemes to support them. This tool was developed to capitalize on lessons learned from the Township Electrification Program that preceded the Village Electrification Program. We describe the methods used to develop the analysis, some indicative results, and the planned use of the tool in the Village Electrification Program.

1 Energy and Climate, 1.2 Rural and Urban Energy

Rural Energy Policy in China

This paper summarizes the development course of rural energy policy in China, discusses some special factors which influenced the rural energy development, and shows the effect of the main rural energy policies in the rural energy construction development,as well as provides further thinking about rural energy policy research of China in the future. Along with the urbanization, the proportion of rural population in China descended  gradually from about 80% in 1980’s to 62.34% in 2001, with the total amount of the rural population 795.63 million. However, this quantity is still too huge, and the rural population is dispersed in the large rural area. Along with rural economic development ,the rural energy demand has been growing very fast. Total energy consumption in rural area increased to 670 Mtce in 2000,almost half of the total energy consumption in whole China. Therefore ,it is necessary to pay more attention to the rural energy problem which concerns about the energy supply and consumption for agricultural production, township enterprises and households.

1 Energy and Climate, 1.2 Rural and Urban Energy

Rural Energy Patterns in China: A Preliminary Assessment from Available Data Sources

This paper looks into the overall energy pattern in rural China and the possible reasons behind based on an assessment of available data sources. Commercial energy consumption by rural residents is disproportionately lower than that by their urban counterparts. Moreover, biological matters are the dominant source of household fuels in rural areas. Variations in energy consumption are closely related to differences in income, access to energy sources, structures of local economy and geographic/climatic conditions. Information on non-commercial energy consumption is incomplete and additional sample survey is required to gather details of rural energy consumption for specification and verification.

1 Energy and Climate, 1.2 Rural and Urban Energy

Low-Carbon Development in Small and Medium-Sized Cities in the People’s Republic of China: Challenges and Opportunities

This policy brief reveals the challenges and opportunities for small and medium-sized cities in the People’s Republic of China to pursue low-carbon development in urban management and key urban sectors.

1 Energy and Climate, 1.2 Rural and Urban Energy

Development of an End-Use Sector-Based Low-Carbon Indicator System for Cities in China

In 2009, China committed to reducing its carbon dioxide intensity (CO2/unit of gross domestic product, GDP) by 40 to 45 percent by 2020 from a 2005 baseline. In March 2011, China’s 12th Five-Year Plan established a carbon intensity reduction goal of 17% between 2011 and 2015. China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) then announced the selection of five provinces and eight cities to pilot low carbon development work. Macro-level indicators of low carbon development, such as energy use or CO2 emissions per unit of GDP or per capita may be too aggregated to be meaningful measurements of whether a city or province is truly “low carbon”. Instead, indicators based on energy end-use sectors (industry, residential, commercial, transport) offer a better approach for defining “low carbon” and for taking action to reduce energy-related carbon emissions. This paper presents and tests a methodology for the development of an end-use sector-based low-carbon indicator system at the city level, providing initial results for an end-use low carbon indicator system based on data available at the municipal levels. The paper consists of a discussion of macro-level indicators that are typically used for inter-city, regional, or inter-country comparisons; the methodology used to develop a more robust low carbon indicator system for China; and the results of this indicator system. The research concludes with a discussion of issues encountered during the development of the end-use sector-based low-carbon indicator, followed by recommendations for future improvement

1 Energy and Climate, 1.2 Rural and Urban Energy

Designing Clean Energy Cities: New Approaches to Urban Design and Energy Performance

This report has two purposes: first to present a synopsis of our work to date on Making the ‘Clean Energy City’ in China, a multi—year research effort, and second to report on the work of the MIT—Tsinghua Joint Urban Design Studio held in Jinan and Beijing, China over the summer of 2010, an integral part of the research program. The overall research effort is aimed at producing new patterns of development for China’s rapid urbanization and a new tool, which we call the Energy Proforma©, by which developers and designers may measure and compare the energy performance of their projects. After having spent a year understanding the landscape of clean energy design globally, measuring energy-urban form relationships in our demonstration city of Jinan, and developing an alpha version of the tool, the studio was the first opportunity to bring all aspects of the work together.

1 Energy and Climate, 1.2 Rural and Urban Energy

A Tale of Five Cities: The China Residential Energy Consumption Survey

Consumption of electricity in the residential sector in China has risen faster than all other energy forms in China over the last 20 years, driven in part by the enormous increase in household appliance ownership, but few details are known about the characteristics of overall household energy use, particularly in the wake of the dramatic changes in the last two decades. Despite the growing importance of this sector to the evolution of future energy consumption patterns, few data exist about the nature and type of urban household energy consumption. This paper summarizes the initial results of a first-ever 5-city, 251-household comprehensive survey of Chinese household energy use, taken in the cities of Beijing, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Yixing, and Shenyang. Focus in this paper is on analysis of the major electricity consuming products in households, but summaries of the findings on housing characteristics, space heating, air conditioning, hot water supply and use, indoor lighting, cooking, refrigeration, other appliances, house insulation, energy consumption in winter and summer months, energy prices, and household demographic information are also included. The findings support the current policy to emphasize development of minimum efficiency standards for household equipment, as energy consumption from these sources are a significant portion of the household energy budget.

1 Energy and Climate, 1.2 Rural and Urban Energy