Archive for 8.3.2 Steel, Iron and other Metallurgy

Advances in Energy Conservation of China Steel Industry

The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980–2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011–2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years’ research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.2 Steel, Iron and other Metallurgy

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and the U.S

The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for making an accurate comparison of the energy intensity of steel production in China and the U.S. The methodology addresses issues related to boundary definitions, conversion factors, and industry structure. In addition to the base case analysis, six scenarios were developed to assess the effect of different factors such as the share of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel production, conversion factors for the embodied energy of imported and exported intermediary and auxiliary products, and the differences in net calorific values of the fuels. The results of the analysis show that for the whole iron and steel production process, the final energy intensity in 2006 was equal to 14.90 GJ/tonne crude steel in the U.S. and 23.11 GJ/tonne crude steel in China in the base scenario. In another scenario that assumed the Chinese share of electric arc furnace production in 2006 (i.e. 10.5%) in the U.S., the energy intensity of steel production in the U.S. increased by 54% to 22.96 GJ/tonne crude steel. Thus, when comparing the energy intensity of the U.S and Chinese steel industry, the structure of the industry should be taken into account.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.2 Steel, Iron and other Metallurgy

Designing Energy Conservation Voluntary Agreements for the Industrial Sector in China: Experience from a Pilot Project with Two Steel Mills in Shandong Province

China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China’s industrial sector consumes about 70% of the nation’s total energy each year and is heavily dependent on the country’s abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. Industrial production locally pollutes the air with emissions of criteria pollutants, uses scarce water and oil resources, emits greenhouse gases contributing to climate change, and produces wastes. Fostering innovative approaches that are tailored to China’s emerging market-based political economy to reduce the use of polluting energy resources and to diminish pollution from industrial production is one of the most important challenges facing the nation today. The use of Voluntary Agreements as a policy for increasing energy-efficiency in industry, which has been a popular approach in many industrialized countries since the early 1990s, is being tested for use in China through a pilot project with two steel mills in Shandong Province. The pilot project was developed through international collaboration with experts in China, the Netherlands, and the U.S. Designing the pilot project involved development of approaches for energy-efficiency potential assessments for the steel mills, target-setting to establish the Voluntary Agreement energy-efficiency goals, preparing energy-efficiency plans for implementation of energy-saving technologies and measures, and monitoring and evaluating the project’s energy savings.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.2 Steel, Iron and other Metallurgy

Development of an Energy Conservation Voluntary Agreement Pilot Project in the Steel Sector in Shandong Province: Report to the State Economic and Trade Commission, People’s Republic of China

Voluntary Agreements were chosen by the State Economic and Trade Commission (SETC) as a new policy mechanism to test in China’s industrial sector where the movement toward a market economy is demanding innovative methods for supporting and transforming essential enterprises. Analysis of the potential for energy efficiency improvement in various energy-intensive industrial sectors in China led to the choice of the iron and steel industry for a pilot project to evaluate this new concept. SETC chose Jinan Iron and Steel Company (Jigang) and Laiwu Iron and Steel Company (Laigang) to test this innovative policy mechanism. The Pilot Project has been developed collaboratively with representatives from Jigang and Laigang, SETC, and the Shandong Economic and Trade Commission (ETC). 7 This report provides information on international experience with Voluntary Agreements and then provides methodologies and guidelines for developing and implementing a pilot Energy Conservation Voluntary Agreement with the two steel enterprises in Shandong Province.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.2 Steel, Iron and other Metallurgy

Voluntary Agreements for Increasing Energy-Efficiency in Industry: Case Study of a Pilot Project with the Steel Industry in Shandong Province, China (Proceedings of the 2003 American Council for An Energy-Efficient Economy’s Summer Study on Energy-Efficiency in Industry)

This paper describes international experience with the use of Voluntary Agreements for increasing industrial sector energy-efficiency, drawing lessons learned regarding the essential elements of the more successful programs. The paper focuses on a pilot project for implementation of a Voluntary Agreement with two steel mills in Shandong Province that was developed through international collaboration with experts in China, the Netherlands, and the U.S. Designing the pilot project involved development of approaches for energy-efficiency potential assessments for the steel mills, target-setting to establish the Voluntary Agreement energy-efficiency goals, preparing energy-efficiency plans for implementation of energy-saving technologies and measures, and monitoring and evaluating the project’s energy savings.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.2 Steel, Iron and other Metallurgy

Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Steel Production in China

 In 1996, China manufactured just over 100 Mtonnes of steel and became the world’s largest steel producer. Official Chinese energy consumption statistics for the steel industry include activities not directly associated with the production of steel, “double-count” some coal-based energy consumption, and do not cover the entire Chinese steelmaking industry. In this paper, we make adjustments to the reported statistical data in order to provide energy use values for steel production in China that are comparable to statistics used internationally. We find that for 1996, official statistics need to be reduced by 1365 PJ to account for non-steel production activities and double-counting. Official statistics also need to be increased by 415 PJ in order to include steelmaking energy use of small plants not included in official statistics. This leads to an overall reduction of 950 PJ for steelmaking in China in 1996. Thus, the official final energy use value of 4018 PJ drops to 3067 PJ. In primary energy terms, the official primary energy use value of 4555 PJ is reduced to 3582 PJ when these adjustments are made.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3.2 Steel, Iron and other Metallurgy

The Chinese Non-ferrous Metals Industry—Energy Use and CO2 Emissions

China is the largest non-ferrous metals producer in the world and largest consumer for six kinds of common nonferrous metals including copper,  aluminum, zinc, lead, nickel and tin. This paper provides an overview of the non-ferrous metals industry in China, from a CO2 emissions reduction perspective. It addresses energy use disaggregated by energy carrier and by province. It focuses on an analysis of energy efficiency in the production of aluminum, copper and nickel. A few large-scale enterprises produce most of the aluminum, copper and nickel in China, and use manufacturing facilities that were built within the last 20 years or have recently upgraded their main production equipment and processes. The energy efficiency of these operations is not particularly low compared to international practice. A large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) operate non-ferrous metals production facilities which ran low in energy efficiency and therefore are highly energy intensive per unit of physical output. Backward production capacity would be phased out continuously by enforcing the energy intensity norms. Energy Policy 38 (2010) 6475–6484.

 

8.3.2 Steel, Iron and other Metallurgy