Archive for 8.3.5 Air Conditioners and Other Domestic Appliances

The Impact of Air-Conditioning Use on Shanghai’s Energy Situation in 2010

Improving the energy efficiency of air conditioning systems, which on hot summer days account for up to 40 percent of Shanghai’s entire power load, is one of the most effective measures Shanghai could take to decrease energy usage and ease peak power loads. This report by Tongji University analyzes the impact three different policy scenarios would have on air conditioning energy consumption and air conditioning systems’ contribution to peak power load and SO2, NOx, CO2, and TSP emissions. On the basis of this analysis, the Tongji University research team recommends several policies that could help Shanghai manage air conditioner energy consumption in a way that limits peak power load and emissions to sustainable levels.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.5 Air Conditioners and Other Domestic Appliances

Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiency of Household Appliances in China

China is already the second largest energy consumer and emitter of the greenhouse gases (GHG) in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and GHG emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through energy efficiency improvement and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end-uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.5 Air Conditioners and Other Domestic Appliances

Feasibility Study on ‘Reach’ Energy Efficiency Standards of Fans, Pumps, and Air Compressors

The China National Institute of Standardization carried out a ‘Feasibility Study on ‘Reach’ Energy Efficiency Standards of Fans, Pumps, and Air Compressors’ in May 2005. The project staff developed a model analysis of the energy-consumption and economic benefits of energy savings based on a market survey of fans, pumps and air compressors in China, and drafted a timetable of energy savings. The following paper provides policy recommendations based on analysis of international best practices and the main barriers to China’s reach energy efficiency standard establishment and implementation.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.5 Air Conditioners and Other Domestic Appliances

Made for China: Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Household Appliances

Since 1989, China has developed one of the most comprehensive appliance standards and labeling programs in the developing world. The program includes minimum energy efficiency standards, a voluntary endorsement label, and a proposed information label. The minimum energy efficiency standards are mandatory and have been issued for 9 types of appliance and lighting products. The voluntary endorsement label has been issued for 15 types of appliances, lighting, and industrial products. The information label is under development and  is likely to be implemented as a pilot  program in 2003

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.5 Air Conditioners and Other Domestic Appliances

A Trickle Turns into a Flood: Standby Power Loss in China

Standby power use typically describes the power consumption of appliances when they are switched off or not providing their primary services but connected to the electric main. Such electricity consumption also translates into a significant amount of global carbon emissions. Reducing standby power use has been recognized by a growing community of researchers and international agencies as one of best greenhouse gas mitigation strategies because standby power use can be substantially reduced at relatively low costs. There is almost no information about standby power use in developing countries. Even if the levels of standby power draw for a particular appliance are similar to those found in developed countries, the ownership and usage patterns of those appliances will be different. This paper summarizes the findings from the first survey on standby power use in China.

7.6 Others, 8.3.5 Air Conditioners and Other Domestic Appliances

Technical and Economic Analysis of Energy Efficiency of Chinese Room Air Conditioners

China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990’s to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. But in 1999, China’s State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTU) included in their 1999 plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard. SBTS signed an agreement with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for an air conditioner standards training program, supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.5 Air Conditioners and Other Domestic Appliances

The Sino-US CFC-Free Super-Efficient Refrigerator Project Progress Report: Prototype Development and Testing

This report describes the Sino-US project to promote the transformation of the Chinese domestic refrigerator industry to the production of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-free, super-efficient models. Technologies examined in this effort include non-CFC refrigerants and foam-blowing agents, alternate refrigeration cycles, more efficient compressors, optimization of condenser and evaporator designs, increased insulation thickness, and improvements to door gaskets and controls. Work completed through December 1995 at the China Household Electric Appliance Research Institute (CHEARI), the Haier Group, and the University of Maryland (U. Of Md.) includes the building and testing of Chinese refrigerators that contain a wide variety of energy efficiency improvements and no CFCs. Chinese consumer opinion research on the marketing of ozone-friendly, energy-efficient refrigerators has also been undertaken. Field testing was undertaken for one year in three Chinese cities to test the performance of units under actual operating conditions.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.5 Air Conditioners and Other Domestic Appliances