Archive for 1.1.3 International and Foreign Think-tanks, Research Institutes, NGOs and Individual Researchers

Key China Energy Statistics 2012

The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of  China energy statistics through the publication of its China  Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED. This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modelled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

1 Energy and Climate, 1.1 General Energy Concerns, 1.1.3 International and Foreign Think-tanks, Research Institutes, NGOs and Individual Researchers

Key China Energy Statistics 2011

The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of  China energy statistics through the publication of its China  Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED. This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modelled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

1.1 General Energy Concerns, 1.1.3 International and Foreign Think-tanks, Research Institutes, NGOs and Individual Researchers

Insights & Commentary: China’s 12th Five-Year Plan

On the eve of the National People’s Congress, Greenpeace calls for China to strengthen and improve the 12th Five-Year Plan’s language and data on energy, environment taxation, industrial and agricultural pollution, and other environmental issues. The government must fully demonstrate its commitment to a “green transformation” and seize the opportunity of the next five years to reverse the trend of environmental destruction and degradation. Only then will China be on the path of green, sustainable development, vital to not only its own future but also the global environment.

1 Energy and Climate, 1.1 General Energy Concerns, 1.1.3 International and Foreign Think-tanks, Research Institutes, NGOs and Individual Researchers

China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030 (2nd Edition)

This study presents two modelling methodologies that evaluate both the technical and economic potential of raising China’s efficiency levels to the technical maximum across sectors and the subsequent carbon and energy emission implications through 2030. The technical savings potential by efficiency measure and remaining gap for improvements are identified by comparing a reference scenario in which China continues the current pace of with a Max Tech scenario in which the highest technically feasible efficiencies and advanced technologies are adopted irrespective of costs. In addition, from an economic perspective, a cost analysis of selected measures in the key industries of cement and iron and steel help quantify the actual costs and benefits of achieving the highest efficiency levels through the development of cost of conserved energy curves for the sectors.

1 Energy and Climate, 1.1 General Energy Concerns, 1.1.3 International and Foreign Think-tanks, Research Institutes, NGOs and Individual Researchers

China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030 (1st edition)

1 Energy and Climate, 1.1 General Energy Concerns, 1.1.3 International and Foreign Think-tanks, Research Institutes, NGOs and Individual Researchers

What China Can Learn From International Experiences in Developing a Demand Response Program

Internationally, there is a growing trend in employing market-based approaches through demand response (DR) to effectively manage electricity supply and demand particularly during the peak power use. China can significantly benefit by localizing international experiences in DR. Such international experiences, when integrated in the ongoing pilot demand-side management (DSM) programs in China, can provide greater flexibility to electricity customers and help China identify a potential solution in addressing the peak load issues. After the discussion of why China needs a new approach to meet its peak demand, this paper highlights international experience in adopting enabling policies to promote DR and in employing practical DR strategies geared toward the industrial sector. Through these experiences, we provide recommendations for how to integrate DR in China’s DSM programs.

1 Energy and Climate, 1.1 General Energy Concerns, 1.1.3 International and Foreign Think-tanks, Research Institutes, NGOs and Individual Researchers

China’s Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic expansion and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world’s largest contributor to CO2 emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both a short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as a long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study presents a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. Over the past few years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced its China End-Use Energy Model which is based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China’s complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline (“Continued Improvement Scenario”) and an alternative energy efficiency scenario (“Accelerated Improvement Scenario”) have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. In addition, this analysis also evaluated China’s long-term domestic energy supply in order to gauge the potential challenge China may face in meeting long-term demand for energy. It is a common belief that China’s CO2 emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not necessarily be the case because saturation in ownership of appliances, construction of residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and urbanization will peak around 2030 with slowing population growth. The baseline and alternative scenarios also demonstrate that China’s 2020 goals can be met and underscore the significant role that policy – driven energy efficiency improvements will play in carbon mitigation along with a decarbonized power supply through greater renewable and non-fossil fuel generation.

1 Energy and Climate, 1.1 General Energy Concerns, 1.1.3 International and Foreign Think-tanks, Research Institutes, NGOs and Individual Researchers

China: Peak Energy and the Limits to Economic Growth

1 Energy and Climate, 1.1 General Energy Concerns, 1.1.3 International and Foreign Think-tanks, Research Institutes, NGOs and Individual Researchers

The Institutions of Energy Governance in China

International collaboration, in any form, requires trust, and such trust is built on understanding. In the case of collaboration in the field of energy, potential partners need to have an appreciation of frameworks for energy governance in each others’ countries. Only then can they accurately interpret the data, the statements and the declared commitments provided by other parties. Nowhere is this ignorance of greater relevance to today’s challenges than the case of China. The size and rate of growth of China’s economy, of its energy demand, of its energy imports and of its atmospheric emissions of various types make this country an essential major partner in any regional or global discussions relating to the production and consumption of energy. Yet such is the size, diversity, complexity and lack of transparency characterising China’s energy sector that external parties find it very difficult to interpret the information emerging from the country and the actions and statements of the government. No shortage of information exists. Indeed it might be argued that there is too much information on China’s energy sector: too much information and not enough understanding. The premise of this paper is that an improved understanding of the institutions of governance of China’s energy sector will allow us to better appreciate current structures and policies, past policy decisions and outcomes, and the possible trajectories for future policies and policy outcomes. In short, it should provide us with valuable insights into events, trends and behaviours.

1 Energy and Climate, 1.1 General Energy Concerns, 1.1.3 International and Foreign Think-tanks, Research Institutes, NGOs and Individual Researchers

China’s New National Energy Commission: Policy Implications

On 27 January 2010, China announced the establishment of a new institution  under the State Council—the National Energy Commission. The institution is like a cabinet within the Cabinet. The National Energy Commission is housed in the State Council, suggesting the rise of power of the government. Out of 27 ministers, 12 are on board in the newly established National Energy  Commission. Most notably, ministers of Foreign Affairs, State Security,  Finance, Environmental Protection, Commerce, Land and Resources, and  Water Resources are among the 21 members. Moreover, the military is also represented. The establishment of such a super-ministry at this time reflects Chinese leaders’ concern for energy efficiency, energy security, and environmental protection. By establishing this super-ministry, China’s leadership attempts to better coordinate energy policy in order to get intra-agency cooperation on strategic initiatives on carbon emission reduction and energy efficiency improvement. The National Energy Commission is tasked to produce China’s energy development strategy, review issues of energy security and development, and coordinate domestic energy exploration and international energy cooperation. The establishment of such an institution on energy policy is certainly a step in the right direction to tackle energy security and environmental issues in China.  But it remains to be seen how this super-ministry actually operates and whether it can produce desired results.

1 Energy and Climate, 1.1 General Energy Concerns, 1.1.3 International and Foreign Think-tanks, Research Institutes, NGOs and Individual Researchers