Archive for 8.3.4 Buildings

Building Distributed Energy Performance Optimization for China — a Regional Analysis of Building Energy Costs and CO2 Emissions

China’s fast urbanization makes building energy efficiency a crucial economic issue; however, only limited studies have been done that examined how to design and select suitable building energy technologies in different regions of China. This paper reports the results of a regional study of Chinese commercial and residential building energy use for optimal building energy performance. One retail and one multi-family residential prototype building are selected for this study, and their energy performance is analyzed in major Chinese cities and climate zones. To optimize each building’s performance, several distributed energy resources such as combined heat and power (CHP), photovoltaics (PV), and battery storage, are considered for the selected building. Other data, for example solar radiation, electricity tariff, technology costs, and government financial incentives, are also collected for the study. The optimal building energy performance is calculated using the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) which minimizes building energy cost or CO2 emissions, or a combination. The trade-off between these objectives is also analyzed for the case buildings. Finally, this paper discusses suitable building energy technologies for different building types in different Chinese climate regions.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.4 Buildings

CHAMPS-Multizone—A Combined Heat, Air, Moisture and Pollutant Simulation Environment for Whole-building Performance Analysis

A computer simulation tool, named “CHAMPS-Multizone” is introduced in this paper for analyzing both energy and IAQ performance of buildings. The simulation model accounts for the dynamic effects of outdoor climate conditions (solar radiation, wind speed and direction, and contaminant concentrations), building materials and envelope system design, multizone air and contaminant flows in buildings, internal heat and pollutant sources, and operation of the building HVAC systems on the building performance. It enables combined analysis of building energy efficiency and indoor air quality. The model also has the ability to input building geometry data and HVAC system operation related information from software such as SketchUp and DesignBuilder via IDF file format. A “bridge” to access static and dynamic building data stored in a “virtual building” database is also developed, allowing convenient input of initial and boundary conditions for the simulation, and for comparisons between the predicted and measured results. This paper summarizes the mathematical models, adopted assumptions, methods of implementation, and verification and validation results. The needs and challenges for further development are also discussed.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.4 Buildings

Building Energy Efficiency Policies in China Status Report

It is well known that the scale of building development in China is unprecedented. It is also evident that the expansion of the built environment coupled with the impact of energy consumed by China’s buildings will have a significant influence on global greenhouse gas emissions. Much of the information available in English about the Chinese building sector elaborates on these well-known themes. However, there are less well-documented insights about the efforts made by China in addressing the challenge of building energy-efficiently on a massive scale. As this report shows, there is much the global community can learn from Chinese best practices. The rationale for this report was to address the current lack of data on Chinese building energy performance and the effectiveness of building energy policies that is produced and available widely in English. This lack of Chinese data is undermining global attempts to determine the GHG abatement potential of the building sector. The situation also hinders Chinese experts from participating and influencing the discourse on achieving the global abatement potential of the building sector.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.4 Buildings

Ecological Energy-Saving Building Demonstration Project

Follow the basic concepts of “energy saving, resources conservation, environment protection and people-oriented” and the building pattern of embodying the sustainable development capacity, the project adopts the three eco-energy saving technologies of “solar + air-source heat pump for heating”, “solar lighting”, and “central air conditioning using ground-source heat pump” to achieve the energy-saving demonstration purpose.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.4 Buildings

Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China

China’s rapid economic expansion has propelled it into the ranks of the largest energy consuming nation in the world, with energy demand growth continuing at a pace commensurate with its economic growth. Even though the rapid growth is largely attributable to heavy industry, this in turn is driven by rapid urbanization process, by construction materials and equipment produced for use in buildings. Residential energy is mostly used in urban areas, where rising incomes have allowed acquisition of home appliances, as well as increased use of heating in southern China. The urban population is expected to grow by 20 million every year, accompanied by construction of 2 billion square meters of buildings every year through 2020. Thus residential energy use is very likely to continue its very rapid growth. Understanding the underlying drivers of this growth helps to identify the key areas to analyze energy efficiency potential, appropriate policies to reduce energy use, as well as to understand future energy in the building sector. This paper provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis of residential building energy consumption in China using data from a wide variety of sources and a modeling effort that relies on a very detailed characterization of China’s energy demand. It assesses the current energy situation with consideration of end use, intensity, and efficiency etc, and forecast the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020, based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity, availability of energy services, technology improvement and energy intensities.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.4 Buildings

Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China’s Commercial and Office Buildings

Buildings represent an increasingly important component of China’s total energy consumption mix. However, accurately assessing the total volume of energy consumed in buildings is difficult owing to deficiencies in China’s statistical collection system and a lack of national surveys. Official statistics suggest that buildings account for about 19% of China’s total energy consumption, while others estimate the proportion at 23%, rising to 30% over the next few years. In addition to operational energy, buildings embody the energy used in the in the mining, extraction, harvesting, processing, manufacturing and transport of building materials as well as the energy used in the construction and decommissioning of buildings. This embodied energy, along with a building’s operational energy, constitutes the building’s life-cycle energy and emissions footprint. This report first provides a review of international studies on commercial building life-cycle energy use from which data are derived to develop an assessment of Chinese commercial building life-cycle energy use, then examines in detail two cases for the development of office building operational energy consumption to 2020. Finally, the energy and emissions implications of the two cases are presented.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.4 Buildings

Current Status of Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Hot Summer and Warm Winter Zone

The report is about the energy efficiency codes implementation in Hot Summer and Warm Winter Zone.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.4 Buildings

China’s Building Energy Use

Buildings represent an important and increasing component of China’s total energy consumption mix. However, it is difficult to assess accurately the total volume of energy consumed in buildings owing to deficiencies in China’s statistical collection system and the lack of national surveys. Officially, residential and commercial energy use account for 19% of China’s total consumption. This measure, though, omits many commercial and residential buildings that belong to units that are categorized under the industrial, agricultural, construction or other sectors of the economy. Chinese academics estimate that the buildings sector actually accounts for 23% of total energy use and will exceed 30% by 2010 (Liang, et al. 2007). Beyond data uncertainties, current figures exclude the energy used in the mining, extraction, harvesting, processing, manufacturing and transport of building materials as well as the energy used in the construction of buildings. This annotated bibliography aims to review the existing major literature available in English and Chinese (including Japanese research published in Chinese) to determine the type, nature and scope of available building energy use data, including embedded energy (production of building materials and construction energy) and operations energy (enduse equipment use of energy). A wide range of sources were reviewed and include ongoing projects in China metering building energy use in the residential and commercial sectors. As well, relevant international reports on issues not covered directly in the sources about China were reviewed, including such topics as building lifetime, building material intensity, and energy use changes between dense and dispersed residential settings, among others.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.4 Buildings

The Reality and Future Scenarios of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China

While China’s 11th Five Year Plan called for a reduction of energy intensity by 2010, whether and how the energy consumption trend can be changed in a short time has been hotly debated. This research intends to evaluate the impact of a variety of scenarios of GDP growth, energy elasticity and energy efficiency improvement on energy consumption in commercial buildings in China using a detailed China End-use Energy Model.  China’s official energy statistics have limited information on energy demand by end use. This is a particularly pertinent issue for building energy consumption. The authors have applied reasoned judgments, based on experience of working on Chinese efficiency standards and energy related programs, to present a realistic interpretation of the current energy data. The bottom-up approach allows detailed consideration of end use intensity, equipment efficiency, etc., thus facilitating assessment of potential impacts of specific policy and technology changes on building energy use.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.4 Buildings

Current Status of Energy Efficiency in Newly-built Buildings in Hot Summer & Cold Winter Area

The report is about Current Status of Energy Efficiency in Newly-built Buildings in Hot Summer & Cold Winter Area and Implementation of “Design Standards of Energy Efficiency in Residential Buildings in Hot Summer & Cold Winter Area”

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.4 Buildings