Archive for 5 Nuclear

Annual Report on Nuclear Safety

In 2009, nuclear facilities in service maintained a safe operation and the quality of nuclear facilities under construction was under effective control. There were no safety related events or accidents of level 2 or above occurred in any operational NPPs, research reactors, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, radioactive waste storage, treatment and disposal facilities, or radioactive material transportation activities. Minor events and nonconformance items of nuclear facilities in operation and under construction were timely handled. In 2009, the national environmental radiation monitoring network was in regular service, and the radiation environment throughout the country generally maintained in a good state. The ionizing radiation level in the environment was kept at the same level as previous years. On the whole, there were no significant changes in the radiation levels of the environment adjacent to the nuclear facilities and nuclear technology application activities. The generalcondition of the environmental electromagnetic levels was in good state. The electromagnetic radiation levels of most of the electromagnetic radiation facilities met the national standards except that the combined field intensities in certain parts of surrounding environment of a few high-power transmitters just exceeded the standards.

5 Nuclear, 5.1 Government, Corporate, Global Organisations and International Thinktanks

Nuclear Power in China

Mainland China has 16 nuclear power reactors in operation, almost 30 under construction, and more about to start construction. Additional reactors are planned, including some of the world’s most advanced, to give a five- or six-fold increase in nuclear capacity to 58 GWe by 2020, then possibly 200 GWe by 2030, and 400 GWe by 2050. China has become largely self-sufficient in reactor design and construction, as well as other aspects of the fuel cycle. The appendix to this report, Appendix : Government Structure and Ownership can be found here http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf63ai_chinanuclearstructure.html Ministries and Commissions are at the top level under the State Council; Administrations and Bureaus are under these. The national utility companies are largely or wholly state-owned. As well as these high-level entities, there are specialist service companies with national scope, listed in the second section of this page. Below these are listed the owner companies relevant to each power plant or project. Its report on China’s Nuclear Fuel Cycle can be found here:  http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf63b_china_nuclearfuelcycle.html Although China intends to become self-sufficient in most aspects of the fuel cycle, it relies increasingly on imported uranium as well as conversion, enrichment and fabrication services from other countries. Domestic uranium mining currently supplies less than a quarter of China’s nuclear fuel needs. Exploration and plans for new mines have increased significantly since 2000, and state-owned enterprises are also acquiring uranium resources internationally. China’s two major enrichment plants were built under agreements with Russia in the 1990s and, under a 2008 agreement, Russia will help build additional capacity and also supply low-enriched uranium to meet future needs. China has stated it intends to become self-sufficient not just in nuclear power plant capacity, but also in the production of fuel for those plants. However, the country still relies on foreign suppliers for all stages of the fuel cycle, from uranium mining through fabrication and reprocessing. As China rapidly increases the number of new reactors, it has also initiated a number of domestic projects, often in cooperation with foreign suppliers, to meet its nuclear fuel needs.

5 Nuclear, 5.1 Government, Corporate, Global Organisations and International Thinktanks

2007, US-China Nuclear Cooperation Agreement, CRS report, Congress

This CRS Report, updated as warranted, discusses the agreement on civilian nuclear cooperation with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) by focusing on congressional roles in crafting and carrying out the agreement. Almost 13 years passed between the time that President Reagan submitted the agreement to Congress in July 1985 and its implementation in March 1998 under the Clinton Administration. Key developments in the U.S.-China nuclear cooperation agreement were timed for diplomatic summits between U.S. Presidents and PRC leaders.

5.1 Government, Corporate, Global Organisations and International Thinktanks

China’s Energy Sector after Fukushima Daiichi

The Carnegie-Tsinghua Center for Global Policy in Beijing, China hosted Chinese energy policy experts Deborah Seligsohn of the World Resources Institute, Sun Xia of the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences (SASS), Lui Qiang from the Energy Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), and Yang Fuqiang of the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) for a discussion on the challenges and opportunities for China’s future energy development resulting from the Fukushima disaster. Carnegie’s Kevin Tu moderated the discussion.

5 Nuclear, 5.1 Government, Corporate, Global Organisations and International Thinktanks

Lessons from Fukushima and Implications for China

The impact of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster on the global nuclear energy industry can clearly be seen one year later. Countries around the world with civilian nuclear programs have all learned lessons from the Fukushima disaster, most importantly that international best practices must be adhered to if countries wish to minimize the risk of such disasters in the future.

5 Nuclear, 5.1 Government, Corporate, Global Organisations and International Thinktanks

Nuclear Crisis in Japan: Preliminary Policy Implications for China

The ongoing nuclear crisis in Japan is expected to have a profound psychological impact on decision makers and ordinary citizens in China, where the world’s most ambitious nuclear construction is scheduled to unfold in the coming decade.

5 Nuclear, 5.1 Government, Corporate, Global Organisations and International Thinktanks

China and India’s Nuclear Energy Policy

China and India have vast energy demands and civil nuclear programs. In the wake of the Fukushima nuclear crisis in Japan, nuclear safety and security will play a major role in both countries’ nuclear evolution and cooperation in the years to come. 

5 Nuclear, 5.1 Government, Corporate, Global Organisations and International Thinktanks

A Warning for China’s Nuclear Sector

China’s leadership should consider the recent Wenzhou train crash a warning of the need to reevaluate the safety risks of the country’s ambitious nuclear power construction targets.

5 Nuclear, 5.1 Government, Corporate, Global Organisations and International Thinktanks

China’s Nuclear Future

A collection of essays about China’s nuclear future in the wake of the Fukushima accident in Japan. China Dialogue March 17-April 26 2011 Special Series.

5 Nuclear, 5.2 Civil Society Selected Articles (Including Hongkong Civil Society)

China’s Nuclear Backlash Fosters Local Power

When Ding Jie, a water program officer for Wuhu Ecology Center, travelled to Wangjiang County, in China’s Southern Anhui province, to examine local water pollution cases this spring, she encountered something surprising. Ding was amazed to learn of Wangjiang’s popular protest movement against a nuclear plant being built in neighboring Pengze, across the Yangtze, in Jiangxi province. Wangjiang is located downstream of Pengze, where Jiangxi’s first nuclear power plant was underway. Pengze was poised to be the first nuclear power station in an inland province. However, the Chinese government halted its construction after Japan’s Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. Local opposition at Wangjiang, led by retired local governmental officials, has been strong. When Ding Jie shared information about the protest movement with her office colleagues in Wuhu, she learned that their city is also proposing a nuclear power plant.

5 Nuclear, 5.2 Civil Society Selected Articles (Including Hongkong Civil Society)