Use of Alternative Fuels in Cement Manufacture: Analysis of Fuel Characteristics and Feasibility for Use in the Chinese Cement Sector

Abstract Cement manufacturing is an energy-intensive process due to the high temperatures required in the kilns for clinkerization. The use of alternative fuels to replace conventional fuels, in particular coal, is a widespread practice and can contribute to improving the global warming impact and total environmental footprint of the cement industry. This report consists of three sections: an overview of cement manufacturing technologies, a detailed analysis of alternative fuel types and their combustion characteristics, and a preliminary feasibility assessment of using alternative fuels in China. This report provides an overview of the technical and qualitative characteristics of a wide range of alternative fuels including agricultural and non-agricultural biomass, chemical and hazardous wastes, petroleum-based wastes, and miscellaneous waste fuels. Each of these alternatives are described in detail, including a discussion of average substitution rates, energy and water content of the fuels, carbon dioxide emissions factors, and change in carbon emissions per ton of coal replacement. Utilization of alternative fuels in cement kilns is not without potential environmental impacts; emissions concerns and their effective management are discussed in general as well as for each alternative fuel type. Finally, the availability of a variety of alternative fuels is assessed in China along with the opportunities and technical challenges associated with using alternative fuels in China’s cement manufacturing sector.
Date 2008
Author Murray, Ashley
Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Series Report LBNL-525E
8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.3 Cement and Concrete