Archive for 8 Energy Intensive Industries

An Update on the Transport Infrastructure Development in China

To boost economic growth, China has massively invested in transport infrastructure in recent years. Fixed assets investment in the four major modes of transportation (road, railway, water and air) amounted to 2,200 billion yuan in 2011. Highway alone accounted for more than half of the total fixed assets investment in the four major modes of transportation, indicating the importance of road transportation in the development of transport infrastructure in China. Among all, investment in railway in 2011 dropped the most, owing to the slowdown in high speed railway (HSR)* construction projects in China. The railway market has been facing funding shortages due to uncertain policy and credit curbs, particularly after the fatal Wenzhou accident in July 2011. Nonetheless, China’s Ministry of Railways (MOR) announced plans.

8.3.7 Transport

The Chinese Non-ferrous Metals Industry—Energy Use and CO2 Emissions

China is the largest non-ferrous metals producer in the world and largest consumer for six kinds of common nonferrous metals including copper,  aluminum, zinc, lead, nickel and tin. This paper provides an overview of the non-ferrous metals industry in China, from a CO2 emissions reduction perspective. It addresses energy use disaggregated by energy carrier and by province. It focuses on an analysis of energy efficiency in the production of aluminum, copper and nickel. A few large-scale enterprises produce most of the aluminum, copper and nickel in China, and use manufacturing facilities that were built within the last 20 years or have recently upgraded their main production equipment and processes. The energy efficiency of these operations is not particularly low compared to international practice. A large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) operate non-ferrous metals production facilities which ran low in energy efficiency and therefore are highly energy intensive per unit of physical output. Backward production capacity would be phased out continuously by enforcing the energy intensity norms. Energy Policy 38 (2010) 6475–6484.

 

8.3.2 Steel, Iron and other Metallurgy

The Challenge of Reducing Energy Consumption of the Top-1000 Largest Industrial Enterprises in China

In 2005, the Chinese government announced an ambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 20% between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizing this goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. The energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for 33% of national and 47% of industrial energy usage in 2004. Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets were determined for each enterprise. The objective of this article is to evaluate the program design and initial results, given limited information and data, to understand the possible implications of its success in terms of energy and carbon dioxide emission reductions and to recommend future program modifications based on international experience with similar target-setting agreement programs. Even though the Top-1000 program was designed and implemented rapidly, it appears that – depending upon the GDP growth rate – it could contribute to somewhere between approximately 10% and 25% of the savings required to support China’s efforts to meet a 20% reduction in energy use per unit of GDP by 2010.

8.3.1 Top 1000 Energy Consuming Companies

Energy in China: Transportation, Electric Power and Fuel Markets

China has experienced enormous growth in its energy markets over the last two decades, fuelled by sustained growth in its economy. As rapidly expanding transportation and power production in China place increasing demands on markets for oil, gas and coal, the effects may well be felt elsewhere in the APEC region. APERC has undertaken this study to afford policy-makers a better understanding of how transport and power sector trends in China may affect fuel markets and the environment, as well as measures that might be taken to moderate the impacts foreseen.

7.6 Others, 8.3.7 Transport

A Trickle Turns into a Flood: Standby Power Loss in China

Standby power use typically describes the power consumption of appliances when they are switched off or not providing their primary services but connected to the electric main. Such electricity consumption also translates into a significant amount of global carbon emissions. Reducing standby power use has been recognized by a growing community of researchers and international agencies as one of best greenhouse gas mitigation strategies because standby power use can be substantially reduced at relatively low costs. There is almost no information about standby power use in developing countries. Even if the levels of standby power draw for a particular appliance are similar to those found in developed countries, the ownership and usage patterns of those appliances will be different. This paper summarizes the findings from the first survey on standby power use in China.

7.6 Others, 8.3.5 Air Conditioners and Other Domestic Appliances

Facts and Figures- up to date and regularly updated information on the construction sector including workforce, type of workers, wages, contracts, etc

8.5 Workers in Intensive Energy Industries, 8.5.3 Construction

China as Chimney of the World: The Fossil Capital Hypothesis

What has caused the early 21st-century emissions explosion in China? Driving a global explosion, it appears to stand in some relation to processes of globalization, but these links have mostly remained unexplored. This article revisits some established frameworks for understanding the connection between globalization and environmental degradation and argues that they are insufficient for explaining the Chinese explosion. A new hypothesis is outlined, called “the fossil capital hypothesis.” It proposes that globally mobile capital will tend to relocate production to countries with cheap and disciplined labor, but only through the accelerated consumption of fossil energy. Via three specified “effects,” the inflow of global capital will therefore set off massive increases in CO2 emissions. The hypothesis is applied in a brief analysis of developments in China between 2001 and 2008, and in other Asian countries after the Chinese strike wave in 2010.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.5 Workers in Intensive Energy Industries, 8.5.1 General

Energy Saving Potential of Standards and Labeling in China, A Technical Note to USEPA

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.4 Monitoring, Standards and Labels

Energy Conservation Potential for China Major Energy-using Products Through Standards and Labels

The China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) and the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) estimate that the implementation of minimum energy efficiency standards and information labeling programs for common domestic appliances and major energy-using industrial equipments in China can save almost 60 gigawatts of power by 2020, reduce the need to build 200 average power plants (300 megawatts each), and reduce residential electricity use by nearly 85 percent over the next 17 years. Most of these products are used widely in China but are not covered by existing mandatory energy efficiency standards. This report by CNIS and ACEEE examines current energy efficiency levels, manufacturers’ capacity for adopting new technology and producing new energy-efficient products, advanced international energy efficiency standards, and China’s technology development trends. Based on this research, they propose new energy efficiency standards for each of the products.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.4 Monitoring, Standards and Labels

Technical Supporting Report for China Energy Efficiency Standard for External Power Supplies

China energy efficiency standard for external power supplies has been issued on May 21,2007 and been implemented on Dec 1,2008.

8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.4 Monitoring, Standards and Labels