Opportunities for Improving Energy and Environmental Performance of China’s Cement Kilns

Abstract This report examines 22 technologies or measures that can be used to retrofit or to replace older, inefficient cement kilns to improve their energy efficiency. Such technologies can help China achieve two goals, often erroneously believed to be in conflict: (1) reduce energy use and pollution; and (2) maximize the industry’s economic performance and output. The barrier to their implementation is not the lack of economically feasible technology, but rather the lack of a mechanism to finance investment and outreach to the cement and financial sectors.Fourteen of the technologies and measures examined have simple payback periods of three years or less. At the current price of carbon, sale of associated carbon credits would yield an additional $1,300 – $850,000 on top of the energy cost savings (ranging from 0 to 3.4 GJ/t of fuel and -11 to 35 kWh of electricity), assuming the Clean Development Mechanism requirements could be met.  China produces roughly half of the world’s cement, most of which is made in energy inefficient, highly polluting kilns. The cement industry is a major source of multiple air pollutants, among them dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, mercury, particulate matter and greenhouse gas emissions.
Date 2006 08
Author Price, Lynn
Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Link http://china.lbl.gov/sites/all/files/lbl-60638-ee-cement-kilnsaugust2006.pdf
Series Report LBNL-60638
8 Energy Intensive Industries, 8.3 Energy Efficiency Measures in Key Industrial Sectors, 8.3.3 Cement and Concrete